Personal notes #2: Sins & VirtuesEdit

The Seven Deadly Sins are a very popular theme, and relatively straightforward. My notes for this topic will be a lot more simpler and shorter than the topic of Sephiroth & Qliphoth. It'll mainly be organizational charts for the different sins/virtues for my personal convenience.

Eight Evil ThoughtsEdit

The precursor to the modern iteration of the Seven Deadly Sins, attributed with Evagrius Ponticus, who first identified them in Greek.

Sin Latin
Gluttony Gula
Lust Luxuria
Greed1 Avaritia
Melancholy2 Tristitia5
Wrath Ira
Sloth3 Acedia
Vanity4 Vanagloria5
Pride Superbia

1 Greed is also known as Avarice.

2 Also known as Sorrow or Despair, Melancholy is the despair that causes one to abandon God, their faith, and themselves. It has also been interpreted as Envy, despair towards the success of others. When Pope Gregory I revised the Eight Evil Thoughts into the Seven Deadly Sins, he combined Melancholy together with Sloth, while creating a separate sin for Envy.

3 Sloth is a complex sin. It not only encompasses laziness, but also the listlessness of apathy. It is hopelessness towards the world. It is a person's apathetic disinterest in their own well-being, their future, and their faith to God.
Melancholy is associated with Sloth because despair inherently leads to apathy.

4 Also known as Vainglory, Vanity is boasting in vain. It is worthlessness, masked by empty glory. Vanity was combined with Pride during Pope Gregory I's revision. While they commonly overlap, it is possible for the two sins to be exhibited separately. Pride is an inward quality, while Vanity is an outward expression.
Like Melancholy, Vanity is also interpreted as an origin for Envy.

5 Melancholy and Vanity have often been equated with different Latin names, especially in modern Japanese media (most likely due to slight translation errors).

  • Alternative names for Tristitia (sorrow) include Melancholia (melancholy) and Cavum (hollow; depression).
  • Alternative names for Vanagloria (vainglory) include Vanitas (vanity) and Irritum (void; worthless)

Seven Deadly SinsEdit

Pope Gregory I has revised the Eight Evil Thoughts into the popular Seven Deadly Sins as we know them.

Various occult belief systems have also categorized certain demons to each of the Deadly Sins, based accordingly on how each demon tempts mortals.

The Deadly Sins are listed here based on Pope Gregory I's order of most serious to least serious sin, with Pride identified as the source of all other sins. However, the order of the Deadly Sins largely does not matter or affect anything.

Sin Latin Demon Correspondence
Pride Superbia Lucifer Humility
Envy Invidia Leviathan Kindness
Wrath Ira Satan Patience
Sloth Acedia Belphegor Diligence
Greed Avaritia Mammon Charity
Gluttony Gula Beelzebub Temperance
Lust Luxuria Asmodeus Chastity

Traditionally, there are no demons specifically assigned to the obsolete sins of Vanity and Melancholy. However, modern media commonly pairs Belial with Vanity and Astaroth with Melancholy, as Belial represents worthlessness and Astaroth is similarly associated with Sloth.

Seven Contrary VirtuesEdit

Distinct from the traditional Seven Heavenly Virtues, these virtues were specifically identified to oppose each of the Seven Deadly Sins. They were introduced by Aurelius Clemens Prudentius in his poem, Psychomachia.

Virtue Latin Correspondence
Humility Humilitas Pride
Kindness Humanitas Envy
Patience Patientia Wrath
Diligence Industria Sloth
Charity Caritas Greed
Temperance Temperantia Gluttony
Chastity Castitas Lust

Seven Heavenly VirtuesEdit

The traditional Seven Heavenly Virtues are composed of the Three Theological Virtues of Faith, Hope and Charity; and the Four Cardinal Virtues of Prudence, Fortitude, Temperance and Justice.

Before a consistent format has been established, several tarot decks of antiquity have used the Seven Heavenly Virtues as trumps of the Major Arcana. However, in modern tarot decks, only three of the Cardinal Virtues remain as Major Arcana.

Virtue Latin Arcana
Faith Fides Faith
Hope Spes Hope
Charity1 Caritas -
Prudence Prudentia - 3
Fortitude2 Fortitudo XI. Strength4
Temperance Temperantia XIV. Temperance
Justice Iustitia VIII. Justice

1 Charity is also known as Love.

2 Fortitude is also known as Courage.

3 Several Major Arcana have been attributed to Prudence, such as XII. The Hanged Man or XXI. The World.

4 The Thoth Tarot deck replaces XI. Strength with XI. Lust. However, it is unlikely to be related with the Seven Deadly Sins as a group.

Seven Terraces of PurgatorioEdit

Dante's Divine Comedy describes Purgatory as a tiered mountain divided into various levels: an Ante-Purgatory at the base, seven terraces that represent the seven roots of sinfulness, and finally the Earthly Paradise (Garden of Eden) at the peak. The Ante-Purgatory encompasses the souls of both the excommunicate and the late-repentant, while the Earthly Paradise represents the original state of innocence of Adam.

The seven terraces represent different levels of suffering based on each of the Seven Deadly Sins, and ascension through the terraces symbolizes spiritual growth and the purging of each sin. They are layered based on Pope Gregory I's order of seriousness.

Order Purgatory Level Sin
The Innocent -
7 The Lustful Lust
6 The Gluttonous Gluttony
5 The Avaricious Greed
4 The Slothful Sloth
3 The Wrathful Wrath
2 The Envious Envy
1 The Proud Pride
0 The Late-Repentant -
The Excommunicate -

Inferno of the Divine Comedy is also similarly divided into levels that partially parallel the Seven Deadly Sins. However, there are distinct differences between the two. While Purgatory is represented by the spiritual qualities and the motives (Seven Deadly Sins), Inferno is represented by physical acts of sinfulness. Inferno is not reflecting the Deadly Sins, but rather it is an inverse representation of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

References in PersonaEdit

  • The final door of the Abyss of Time in Persona 3 FES is named after Purgatorio, while the other doors are named after parts of Inferno and Paradiso.
  • Persona 5, and subsequently Persona 5 Royal, assigned each Palace and its occupant with each of the Seven Deadly Sins, including the obsolete sins of Vanity and Melancholy.
  • Persona 5 uses the alternative Latin terms of Irritum and Cavum to represent Vanity and Melancholy.
  • Cavum is a slightly inaccurate term for Melancholy. While it can translate to depression, it is referring to a physical depression in a surface, a hole. However, emptiness can still be considered a near-synonym for hopelessness. In addition, based on the circumstances of Persona 5 Royal, the wordplay with emptiness is intentional.
  • Likewise, each of the Jail in Persona 5 Scramble: The Phantom Strikers is also associated with a Deadly Sin.
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