I think you're giving Philemon too little credit, if it's possible for the phantom thieves to, i'm certain it's possible for him to. I don't think he'd intervene since it's their journey, and he's just guided them to take it. And still, this all depends on the area they're fighting in. If it's a Palace, P5 would most likely win due to the extreme physical enhancements they have, if it's reality P3 would win since they're able to use persona in real life. If it's just a place where they're able to use Persona, then P3 would win due to the better team,
From what i've been told, P5 the animation is pretty incomparable to the game. P5S is absolutely not where you should go, since it's after the events of the game. I think your best bet is probably to watch gameplay. Or if possible,the best outcome is to play it yourself. P5 came out on PS3, therefore there's an Emulator to play P5 on PC. I'm sorry, I don't know if you meant you had no PC and PS4 or you had no PS4.
I'm going to sound pretty stupid, but here we go. First of all, yes from P4 basically nobody except for maybe Rise and Naoto would stand a chance at all. Going for the Protagonists first, Makoto CAN possibly have done gym, as that's a possible outcome he was able to take, so that's a possible plus. Although, Joker is most likely still more physically able than Makoto is.(don't believe this is canon at all lmao, but in the dancing game it's mentioned Joker was able to fight Sae, a martial artist and win.) And mastery of all weapons that aren't guns are also another plus. Personally, I think everything Joker's done, Makoto's already done possibly more in that regard too. S.E.E.S is easily under more stress and everything inbetween since nothing in P5 is as high stakes as in P3. Don't know if this matters, but there's a possibility of using a Persona in the real world too, i guess.
Navigator wise, I'm actually not really sure, but I think this leans more toward Futaba. If I can remember, Fuuka actually can't see a very clear picture of what's ahead, considering you go +10 floors and she keeps saying you're getting closer, instead of when Futaba is able to lead you and tell you places you need to head to next. Although, I don't think this matters since they're navigators, thus unable to fight.
For S.E.E.S, the powerhouses would be Makoto-Aigis and Akihiko. First off, I do not see a plausible way to stop Aigis unless you fight her. The chance of Futaba being able to hack into something as complicated as Aigis is insurmountably high. Also, I can't remember, is that even how her ability works? we see multiple robot-like entities but she's never once mentioned she's able to hack into a single one of them. Akihiko is a hard one to really explain for, Fighting other people, I think he's great, although his feats are a strange mix, For example, I remember he was able to dodge a bullet at short-ish range but I also don't know if that's true or not. I don't believe anyone in P5 can measure up to his strength, considering the strongest characters to be I believe Haru and Ryuji or Makoto. Even then, Akihiko knows boxing, thus only Makoto would be able to fight him, but I also really doubt she has practice on real people, while Akihiko is a street boxer, who also has an abundance of trophies/awards from boxing. Although, her fighting looks more like baji-quan, but I don't remember her ever mentioning it? Even so, I doubt she has practice and years of experience like Akihiko does. Although, if she perhaps does know baji-quan, that changes things, but the problem is her lack of experience. I don't believe she's fought people with her so called baji-quan, so it might just be a mimicry. It's hard to say since Akihiko's whole character is "really good boxer guy #52" while Makoto is a "rebellious" girl who learned martial arts.
Now, the real issue is that the Phantom Thieves have guns. Not just that, but if we're fighting somewhere where it's possible for them to have their increased physical ability instead of natural and etc, I only think Makoto, Aigis and Akihiko will be able to do literally anything. The physical feats they do in P5 is pretty superhuman. Although I do believe that in-fact if the P5 cast didn't have that huge bonus, they'd be on the losing end. Although again, having guns is the issue at hand. I don't know if this would count, considering that it's the cognition that sees it as a gun. thus they think it's real, so it shoots actual bullets. If we're not accounting for this, Yukari and Makoto are the only ones present with any capability of ranged weapons, giving P3 a further advantage.
S.E.E.S just about outclasses mostly everyone in the Persona Universe that isn't from 1 or 2. And they were able to fight in the real world, i.e the train at the beginning of the game. I genuinely can't see a way P5 has better feats than P3 does, since P3 literally fought God. Not a false god, an actual god that couldn't die, thus they had to resort to Makoto sealing himself away to in accordance seal the god away. Also, Philemon?? you mean Philemon that to my knowledge never appeared in Persona 5? the butterfly was most likely Lavenza speaking to him telepathically, than it was Philemon.
Another thing, what would the evolution of persona matter? that's like an artificial buff, as it doesn't actually show true power, As for example, my level 99 Arsene is probably better than my 77 Thor or something.
I think it's a matter of loyalty, trust or resolve to the main character, as it's only possible by maxing out their confidant. The evolution wouldn't really matter.
In all honesty, it's a "Do what you want." situation, since they're just rhythm games. There aren't like 100+ songs you can listen or keep coming back to, and atleast, for me it feels like it gets boring around the last stretch of the "plot" they were trying to tie in. Oh, and the story isn't canon, in case you do play it.
I see people are uncultured to true art.